Treddetaalwinning troch betide en lette(re) twataligen
Meartaligens en taal learen
Yn dit AyO-projekt wurdt sjoen nei de taalûntjouwing fan it Ingelsk as in tredde taal dy't tige relatearre is oan de earste en twadde taal, it Frysk en it Nederlânsk. It doel is út te finen oft de mjitte fan twataligens ynfloed hat op de treddetaalûntjouwing. Twa groepen earstejiers HAVO/VWO-learlingen (N=77, gemiddelde âldens 12.45) - betide (Frysk-Nederlânske) twataligen en lettere (Nederlânsk-Fryske) twataligen - binne ien skoaljier lang folge en ferskate kearen testen. Der is sjoen nei harren taalfeardigens yn it Frysk, Nederlânsk en Ingelsk en harren mentale taalferwurking, mei as doel om te sjen oft floeiend twataligens in positive ynfloed hat op it learen fan de tredde taal.
Mirjam Günther-van der Meij MA
prof. dr. C.L.J. de Bot (Ryksuniversiteit Grins)
dr. E.L. Klinkenberg (Fryske Akademy), dr. W.M. Lowie (Ryksuniversiteit Grins)
Meartaligens en taal learen
Do early bilinguals learn a third language easier than late(r) bilinguals?
Earlier research suggests that bilinguals are better third language learners compared to monolinguals. The question we address in this study is how bilingual one needs to be to profit from this advantage and whether this advantage also applies to bilinguals of two closely related languages that learn a third also closely related language.
As bilinguals, third language learners have the advantage of already knowing two language systems, which makes them more experienced language learners and makes it easier for them to build the third language on those experiences. This study looks at how bilingual one needs to be to profit from this advantage.
Could this also account for bilinguals from closely related languages? Frisian, Dutch and English all derive from the same language family: the West-Germanic branch, which also includes, amongst others, German and Afrikaans. Frisian and English share a special relationship. It is said that the Frisians brought their language to Britain when they joined the Anglo-Saxons who went through Frisian territory to invade Britain during the 5th century. When the Anglo-Saxons and Frisian began populating the British Isles they spoke a mutually intelligible language, Old English, which is similar to modern Frisian. Of course, since the migration of the Anglo-Saxons and Frisian, the Frisian and English language have been heavily influenced by Dutch and French respectively. However, there are still traces of similarities. East Anglian fisherman had a rhyme which went:
- Bread, butter and green cheese,
Is good English and good Friese
Today the Frisians still have their own version of the rhyme which goes:
- Bûter, brea en griene tsiis,
Is goed Ingelsk en goed Frysk
Even someone who is unfamiliar with both languages can easily spot the similarities. Some Frisians believe that, because of the shared language history, it is easier for them to learn the English language than for for example Dutch speakers.
The current study
This study looks at the development of English as a third language that is closely related to the first and second language, which are either Dutch or Frisian. It looks at both language proficiency and language processing in the three languages involved.
To answer the above questions, two groups of first year high-level secondary school pupils (N=77, mean age 12.5) – fluent Frisian-Dutch bilinguals and non-fluent Dutch-Frisian bilinguals, living in the Province of Fryslân in the Netherlands – are compared on their English language development over a period of one school year. They were tested 3 times on their language proficiency in Frisian, Dutch and English through a speaking task. In addition to fluency, we looked at language processing as measured by two reaction time priming experiments (lexical decision and naming task) comparing the following language pairs: Frisian-English / English-Frisian and Dutch-English / English-Dutch.
Aim of the study
We want to find out if the degree of bilingualism has an impact on third language development. Next to that, we want to find out whether bilingual speakers of related languages have the same advantages in acquiring a third language as bilingual speakers of less related languages do. The study adds to growing research on trilingualism.